(972) 741-7189    

Definition of Terms

Lookup Terms & Definitions

Bone spurs:

Bone spurs are also called osteophytes. They refer to bony overgrowths. Bone spurs commonly occur in the back of the spine. They are prominent in older people. Bone spurs can compress surrounding nerve structures and cause pain. They can also cause other nerve related symptoms. Facet joint bone spurs cause neck and low back pain when facet joints move.

Bulging Disc:

A bulging disc is also known as disc bulge. It means 50% or more of a disc is being squeezed to beyond its adjacent vertebral body boundaries. Disc bulging generally indicates an increase of the spinal load and weakness of a spinal disc.

Disc Degeneration:

Disc degeneration refers to the changes in the spinal discs resulting from chronic wear and tear, or injury. These changes include loss of water in the central disc (disc desiccation), disruption of the disc annulus, and new growth of pain nerve fibres into the damaged discs.

Disc Herniation:

Disc herniation means moving central disc material (nucleus) through broken disc annulus. Depending on the location, a herniated disc may be;

  • Contained, i.e. confined to within the disc
  • Extruded, i.e. prevalent outside of the disc
  • Sequestered i.e. disc fragment falling out of the disc
Disc Tears:

Disc tears generally refer to tearing of the disc annular tissue. It is often caused by disc degeneration and trauma. Central disc material (nucleus) often moves into the torn annulus. It forms an interpositional disc herniation. It might also move through the torn disc to the outside of the disc annulus, causing a disc herniation.

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome:

Back spine surgery is commonly used for the treatment of lower back pain. Surgical operations are typically performed for spinal decompression and spinal fusions. These operations are performed using cages, bone graft, bars and screws. A patient might continue to have symptoms of back and leg pain after a surgical operation. In such a case, the condition is called failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS).

Failed Neck Surgery Syndrome

Failed neck surgery syndrome means a patient continues to feel neck pain and or arm pain following a traditional open neck surgery.

Facet Joint Disease:

The facet joints are part of the connection between the adjacent vertebrae. When the spine wears and tears, the spinal discs become thinner. Therefore, it places more of the burden of support onto the facet joints. The increased stress causes inflammation and formation of bone spurs.

Foraminal Stenosis:

A foramen is a small hole through which the nerve roots exit the spine. Foraminal stenosis refers to the narrowing of the small holes. The most common causes of foraminal stenosis include bone spurs (bony projections), disc herniations, disc bulging, arthritis and ligament thickening.

Pinched nerve:

Spinal nerves exit the spinal column from each side. Nerves controlling sensation and movement of the upper extremities exit through the cervical spine. Whereas, the nerves controlling sensation and movement of low extremities exit from the lumbar spine. Spinal nerves can be compressed or pinched by disc herniations, bone spurs, scars, ligament hypertrophy, and narrowing of the nerve canal due to the loss of disc space heights.

Radiculitis:

Radiculitis means inflammation of the spinal nerve roots. It is often caused by chemical irritation introduced by disc tears. It can also be caused by mechanical compressions from disc herniations or foraminal stenosis. Patients with radiculitis feel burning pain, pins & needles and numbness along the nerve paths.

Radiculopathy:

Radiculopathy refers to chronic injuries of the spinal nerve roots. It can be caused by prolonged nerve irritation or compression. Patients with radiculopathy feel burning pain, pins and needles and numbness. Muscle weakness and atrophy may also occur if the compression persists.

Sciatica:

Sciatica refers to radiculitis or radiculopathy of the lumbosacral spine. Patients suffering from sciatica feel lower back pain. This pain may extend to the buttock, hamstring, calf and foot. In addition to pain, patients may also feel tingling and numbness.

Spinal Stenosis:

Stenosis means narrowing in the medical language. Spinal stenosis refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal. The most common causes of spinal stenosis are wear & tear or degeneration of the spine. Stenosis starts with spinal disc changes; such as tearing, bulging, scarring, herniating and narrowing. Gradually, the spinal facet joint becomes inflamed. The ligaments in the spinal canal and nerve holes become overgrown. Moreover, the bone spurs form on the vertebrae and facets. These new growths compress the spinal cord and spinal nerves causing pain.

Spondylolisthesis:

Spondylolisthesis is a medical term used for spine slippage. The human spine is beautifully aligned in an S shape. Degenerative spinal slippage is caused by weakness of ligaments. Isthmic slippage is caused by a fracture or fractures in vertebral bone. It is also called pars interarticularis defect.

Disc Herniation:

Disc herniation means moving central disc material (nucleus) through broken disc annulus. Depending on the location, a herniated disc may be;

  • Contained, i.e. confined to within the disc
  • Extruded, i.e. prevalent outside of the disc
  • Sequestered i.e. disc fragment falling out of the disc
Disc Tears:

Disc tears generally refer to tearing of the disc annular tissue. It is often caused by disc degeneration and trauma. Central disc material (nucleus) often moves into the torn annulus. It forms an interpositional disc herniation. It might also move through the torn disc to the outside of the disc annulus, causing a disc herniation.

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome:

Back spine surgery is commonly used for the treatment of lower back pain. Surgical operations are typically performed for spinal decompression and spinal fusions. These operations are performed using cages, bone graft, bars and screws. A patient might continue to have symptoms of back and leg pain after a surgical operation. In such a case, the condition is called failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS).

Failed Neck Surgery Syndrome

Failed neck surgery syndrome means a patient continues to feel neck pain and or arm pain following a traditional open neck surgery.

Facet Joint Disease:

The facet joints are part of the connection between the adjacent vertebrae. When the spine wears and tears, the spinal discs become thinner. Therefore, it places more of the burden of support onto the facet joints. The increased stress causes inflammation and formation of bone spurs.

Foraminal Stenosis:

A foramen is a small hole through which the nerve roots exit the spine. Foraminal stenosis refers to the narrowing of the small holes. The most common causes of foraminal stenosis include bone spurs (bony projections), disc herniations, disc bulging, arthritis and ligament thickening.

Pinched nerve:

Spinal nerves exit the spinal column from each side. Nerves controlling sensation and movement of the upper extremities exit through the cervical spine. Whereas, the nerves controlling sensation and movement of low extremities exit from the lumbar spine. Spinal nerves can be compressed or pinched by disc herniations, bone spurs, scars, ligament hypertrophy, and narrowing of the nerve canal due to the loss of disc space heights.

Radiculitis:

Radiculitis means inflammation of the spinal nerve roots. It is often caused by chemical irritation introduced by disc tears. It can also be caused by mechanical compressions from disc herniations or foraminal stenosis. Patients with radiculitis feel burning pain, pins & needles and numbness along the nerve paths.

Radiculopathy:

Radiculopathy refers to chronic injuries of the spinal nerve roots. It can be caused by prolonged nerve irritation or compression. Patients with radiculopathy feel burning pain, pins and needles and numbness. Muscle weakness and atrophy may also occur if the compression persists.

Sciatica:

Sciatica refers to radiculitis or radiculopathy of the lumbosacral spine. Patients suffering from sciatica feel lower back pain. This pain may extend to the buttock, hamstring, calf and foot. In addition to pain, patients may also feel tingling and numbness.

Spinal Stenosis:

Stenosis means narrowing in the medical language. Spinal stenosis refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal. The most common causes of spinal stenosis are wear & tear or degeneration of the spine. Stenosis starts with spinal disc changes; such as tearing, bulging, scarring, herniating and narrowing. Gradually, the spinal facet joint becomes inflamed. The ligaments in the spinal canal and nerve holes become overgrown. Moreover, the bone spurs form on the vertebrae and facets. These new growths compress the spinal cord and spinal nerves causing pain.

Spondylolisthesis:

Spondylolisthesis is a medical term used for spine slippage. The human spine is beautifully aligned in an S shape. Degenerative spinal slippage is caused by weakness of ligaments. Isthmic slippage is caused by a fracture or fractures in vertebral bone. It is also called pars interarticularis defect.

Select Language